6 in 10 child laborers work in agriculture, most commonly as unpaid workers on family farms


Sub-Saharan Africa

While many areas of the world are experiencing some progress in reducing child labor, Sub-Saharan Africa is seeing an increase in child labor activity.


Hazardous work

Levels of hazardous work seem to be dropping for girls but not for boys.


Hazardous Labor

85 million children perform “hazardous” work


Decline of Child Labor Slowing?

The ILO reports that while child labor around the world decreased 10 percent between 2000 and 2004, it only decreased 3 percent between 2004 and 2008.


Nigeria: Millions Lack Schooling

`Nigeria has the highest number of children out of school’
By Ayo Okulaja [article from]

[Originally published September 22, 2010 01:43PM

In ranking Nigeria amongst the worst place for a child to be in 2010, a report by the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) has stated that Nigeria has more children out of education than any other country in the world.
The report claims that an astounding 8.2 million children are not provided with adequate education in Africa’s most populous country. Comparing the nation’s wealth with the apparent low standard of education, the report claims that “the report is made all the more appalling by the fact that Nigeria is far from poor, by African standards. On paper at least it is among the continent’s richest countries, the world’s sixth largest producer of crude oil. But decades of failure to invest in education have left the basic school system hardly functioning, especially in the country’s impoverished north.”
For Primary education, the report claims many students drop out of the school in their first year of education due to `unequal provision of education’ and this it argued, is caused by the lack of political will to address and arrest the issue. “A lack of political will is a major factor in the country having the highest number of children out of school in the world. Gross inequality in the provision of education has led to 8.2 million children out of primary school with many more dropping out within the first year.”
Poor attendance, imbalanced education
The report particularly criticised the northern region of the country for an abysmal amount of children denied good education. “Over half of these children are in the north of the country, with girls suffering the most with many receiving just six months of education in their lives. In the largely Muslim north of Nigeria……….attendance rates are below 50% at primary school and of those only one in every three pupils is female (nationwide, the proportion is five boys to four girls)” it noted.

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Almost 55 million children under the age of 5 in India are underweight.


Tell Congressional Leaders It’s Time to Protect Farmworker Children–Pass the CARE Act Now

Help us protect migrant children by contacting your member of Congress today and urging them to pass the Children’s Act for Responsible Employment:


Summary of the Children’s Act for

Responsible Employment (CARE Act)

H.R. 2234

Representative Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-CA) introduced the Children’s Act for Responsible Employment (CARE Act) on June 16, 2011. The CARE Act addresses the inequities faced by the estimated 300,000 to 400,000 children currently employed in agriculture in the U.S.

The CARE Act:

  • Amends the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) by bringing the age and work hours standards for children working in agriculture up to the standards set under FLSA for all other forms of child labor.

There is currently a loophole that permits children working in agriculture to work longer hours, at a younger age, and in more hazardous conditions than children working in other jobs. The FLSA currently allows children as young as 12 years of age to work in agriculture, while children in non-agricultural work must be at least 14 years of age (often, they must be 16 or older), and are limited to 3 hours of work a day outside of school hours while school is in session.

Farmworker youth can work an unlimited number of hours, as long as those hours are outside of school time. The CARE Act would eliminate these loopholes and require children to be a minimum of 14 to work for wages in agriculture. The Secretary of Labor would determine if specific agricultural jobs are safe for 14- and 15-year-olds to perform—as is done with all other industries.

  • Preserves the FLSA’s family farm exemption. Under the CARE Act, farmers’ children of any age would continue to be able to work for their parents on their own farms.


  • Increases the civil monetary penalties for child labor violations from $11,000 to $15,000, with a minimum penalty of $500, and higher fines for repeat or willful violations. It also increases criminal penalties to a maximum of five years imprisonment.


These increased penalties will serve as a stronger deterrent for employers who consistently violate child labor laws.



  • Strengthens provisions for pesticide exposure in agriculture to take into account additional risks posed to children. Requires the Worker Protection Standard for pesticides be included in the hazardous orders for minors by the Secretary of Labor.


Children working on farms are consistently exposed to hazardous pesticides.  Children have a high skin to body weight ratio and are in a more rapid stage of development, which makes them more vulnerable than adults to pesticide exposure. This provision will protect children from more exposure to pesticides.


Why is the CARE Act Needed?


Health. Agriculture is consistently rated as one of the three most dangerous industries. According to NIOSH, between 1995 and 2002, 113 youth under the age of 20 died in farm-related injuries each year. The fatality rate for young workers in agricultural is six times the rate of any other industry, according to a 2008 report from U.S. DOL. In 2006, an estimated 23,000 children and adolescents were injured on farms. In addition, advocates worry about the long term impact of pesticides on farmworker youth.

Education. Migration and exhausting work contribute to astronomic dropout rates among farmworker kids. Farmworker advocates believe that two of every three dropout. In some migrant communities. The dropout rate is 80 percent.


Equity. Some advocates believe that there is a human rights and civil rights element to this issue. Children who work for wages harvesting crops are often Hispanic and have traditionally been minority youth. Is that one of the reasons Congress has failed to address these child labor disparities?




Nearly one in five victims of trafficking around the world are children.


Craigslist is hub for child prostitution, allege trafficked women

Open letter to founder Craig Newmark in Washington Post tells stories of young women sold for sex through ‘adult services’ ads

The online classified advertising site, Craigslist, is facing accusations that it has become a hub for underage prostitution after two young women placed an advertisement in the Washington Post saying they were repeatedly sold through the site to men who “paid to rape” them.

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